Jason Spicer is an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto, where he researches and teaches on economic alternatives to the investor-owned firm, and the policies and politics they require to succeed at scale. These include cooperatives, which were the subject of his Ph.D. thesis in Political Economy at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but also encompasses other social and solidarity economy models across all three factors of production (land, labor, and capital, or in more plain language: commercial/residential space, businesses, and finance/banking). Through his Community Economies Lab, he also engages in applied business research and policy advisory work for cooperative and social economy initiatives, and for local and national governments, as well.